betaine useage


Betaine (trimethyl glycine) (Figure 17.1) is a metabolite formed in the body from choline. It is a natural constituent of beets, broccoli, grains, shellfish, spinach, and marine algae. Animal studies have shown that betaine is effective in reducing ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity [16]. When compared to ethanol-alone treated cohorts, co-treatment with betaine resulted in increased levels of vitamin A and GSH in the liver, decreased malondialdehyde levels in liver tissue, and reduced serum levels of aminotransferases [16]. Betaine reduced the elevated hepatic levels of lipids, homocysteine, endoplasmic reticulum stress response, and apoptosis [17]. Betaine attenuated alcoholic liver disease by mitigating oxidative stress, increasing synthesis of S-adenosyl methionine and GSH, and decreasing the hepatic homocysteine level. It also triggers a cascade of events that lead to mobilization of triglycerides from liver and concomitantly reduces the endoplasmic reticulum stress responses [18]. Studies with guinea pigs have also shown that betaine prevents ethanol-induced increases in lipid peroxides and triglycerides in the liver, aminotransferase levels in serum, and halts the decrease in the levels of GSH in the liver

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